Up until now, we have mainly focused on only ONE variable at a time.  Occasionally, a second variable crept in, but we have mainly focused on one. 

Now, we're going to start looking at two variables at one time.  In particular, we're going to look at associations between variables.  What does it mean to say that one variable is associated with another?  It doesn't mean that the two variables are similar.  Instead, a variable X is associated with another variable Y if knowledge of X enables you to predict Y with better than chance accu

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